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What is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) – Symptoms and causes

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis RA

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the joints and other parts of the body. It is an autoimmune disease, which means that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues, causing inflammation, pain, and damage. In this blog post, we will explain what rheumatoid arthritis is, what causes it, what are its symptoms, how it is diagnosed, and how it can be treated. We will also discuss some tips for living well with rheumatoid arthritis and how to prevent complications.

What causes rheumatoid arthritis?

The exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. However, some factors may increase the risk of developing it, such as:

Genetics: Some people may inherit genes that make them more susceptible to rheumatoid arthritis.

Age: Rheumatoid arthritis usually affects adults between 40 and 60 years old, but it can occur at any age.

Gender: Women are two to three times more likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis than men.

Smoking: Smoking can trigger or worsen rheumatoid arthritis by increasing inflammation and damaging the lungs.

Obesity: Being overweight or obese can put extra stress on the joints and increase inflammation.

Environmental factors: Exposure to air pollution, dust, or chemicals may trigger or aggravate rheumatoid arthritis.

What are the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it often affects the small joints of the hands, wrists, feet, and ankles. The symptoms may vary from person to person, but they usually include:

– Joint pain, swelling, stiffness, and tenderness

– Reduced range of motion and function of the joints

– Symmetrical pattern of joint involvement (e.g., both hands or both feet)

– Morning stiffness that lasts longer than 30 minutes

– Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite

– Nodules (lumps) under the skin near the joints

– Dryness and inflammation of the eyes and mouth

– Inflammation of the lungs, heart, blood vessels, nerves, or other organs

The symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may come and go in episodes called flares. Flares can be triggered by stress, infection, injury, or changes in weather. Between flares, there may be periods of remission when the symptoms are less severe or absent.

How is rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed?

There is no single test that can diagnose rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood tests, and imaging tests. Some of the tests that may be used are:

Blood tests: To check for markers of inflammation (such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein), antibodies (such as rheumatoid factor or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide), anemia (low red blood cell count), or infection.

X-rays: To look for signs of joint damage or erosion.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To get a detailed view of the soft tissues and bones around the joints.

Ultrasound: To assess the inflammation and fluid accumulation in the joints.

Arthrocentesis: To extract fluid from a swollen joint and analyze it for infection or crystals.

How is rheumatoid arthritis treated?

There is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis, but there are treatments that can help control the symptoms, slow down the disease progression, and prevent joint damage and complications. The treatment plan for rheumatoid arthritis may include:

Medications: There are different types of medications that can be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, such as:

  – Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): To reduce pain and inflammation (e.g., ibuprofen or naproxen).

  – Corticosteroids: To quickly relieve severe inflammation and suppress the immune system (e.g., prednisone).

  – Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): To slow down the disease activity and prevent joint damage (e.g., methotrexate or sulfasalazine).

  – Biologic agents: To target specific molecules involved in the immune response and inflammation (e.g., anakinra or tocilizumab).

  The choice and dosage of medications depend on several factors, such as the severity of symptoms, the response to treatment, the side effects, and the patient’s preferences. The medications may be taken orally, injected, or infused.

Surgery: In some cases, when medications fail to control the symptoms or prevent joint damage, surgery may be an option. Some of the surgical procedures that may be performed are:

  – Synovectomy: To remove inflamed tissue from a joint.

  – Tendon repair: To fix a torn or ruptured tendon around a joint.

  – Joint replacement: To replace a damaged joint with an artificial one made of metal, plastic, or ceramic.

  Surgery can help restore joint function, reduce pain, and improve quality of life. However, it also carries some risks, such as infection, bleeding, or implant failure.

Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve joint mobility, strength, and flexibility. It can also teach the patient how to use assistive devices, such as splints, braces, or walkers, to protect the joints and prevent further damage. Physical therapy may include exercises, massage, heat or cold therapy, electrical stimulation, or ultrasound.

How to live well with rheumatoid arthritis?

Living with rheumatoid arthritis can be challenging, but there are some strategies that can help cope with the condition and improve the quality of life. Some of them are:

Education: Learning about rheumatoid arthritis and its treatment options can help the patient make informed decisions and manage the disease better.

Self-management: Following the treatment plan, monitoring the symptoms, and reporting any changes or concerns to the health care provider can help optimize the outcomes and prevent complications.

Lifestyle changes: Adopting a healthy lifestyle can help reduce inflammation and improve overall well-being. Some of the lifestyle changes that can help are:

  – Eating a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Some foods that may have anti-inflammatory properties are fish oils, plant oils (such as olive or coconut oil), leafy greens, aloe vera, ginger, and turmeric. Some foods that may worsen inflammation are red meat, refined grains, dairy products, saturated fats, and processed foods.

  – Avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption. Smoking can trigger or worsen rheumatoid arthritis by increasing inflammation and damaging the lungs. Alcohol can interact with some medications and increase the risk of liver problems.

  – Maintaining a healthy weight. Being overweight or obese can put extra stress on the joints and increase inflammation. Losing weight can help reduce pain and improve joint function.

  – Exercising regularly. Physical activity can help keep the joints flexible, strengthen the muscles that support them, improve blood circulation, and boost mood and energy levels. Low-impact exercises, such as walking, swimming, cycling, or yoga, are recommended for people with rheumatoid arthritis. However, it is important to consult with the health care provider before starting any exercise program and to avoid overdoing it or exercising during a flare.

  – Getting enough rest and sleep. Resting the joints when they are inflamed or painful can help reduce swelling and prevent further damage. Sleeping well can help the body heal and restore its energy levels. It is advisable to follow a regular sleep schedule and create a comfortable and relaxing sleeping environment.

  – Managing stress. Stress can trigger or worsen rheumatoid arthritis by increasing inflammation and affecting the immune system. Finding healthy ways to cope with stress can help reduce its impact on the disease. Some of the stress management techniques that can help are meditation, breathing exercises, relaxation exercises, hobbies, music, or counseling.

Social support: Having a strong support network of family members, friends, health care providers, or other people with rheumatoid arthritis can help cope with the emotional and practical challenges of living with the disease. Joining a support group or an online community can provide an opportunity to share experiences, learn from others, and receive encouragement and advice.

How to prevent complications of rheumatoid arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis can cause complications that affect not only the joints but also other organs and systems of the body. Some of the possible complications are:

Sjogren’s syndrome: A condition that causes dryness and inflammation of the eyes and mouth due to reduced tear and saliva production.

Pericarditis and pleuritis: Inflammation of the membranes that surround the heart (pericardium) or the lungs (pleura), causing chest pain and difficulty breathing.

Anemia: A condition that causes low red blood cell count due to reduced production or increased destruction of red blood cells.

Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels that can affect blood flow to various organs and tissues.

Osteoporosis: A condition that causes loss of bone density and increased risk of fractures.

To prevent or reduce the risk of these complications, it is important to follow the treatment plan for rheumatoid arthritis and monitor any signs or symptoms that may indicate a problem. It is also advisable to have regular check-ups with the health care provider and undergo screening tests for bone density (bone mineral density test), heart function (electrocardiogram), lung function (spirometry), eye health (eye exam), and blood counts (complete blood count).


Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the joints and other parts of the body. It is an autoimmune disease that causes pain, swelling, Stiffness.

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